The Making of Christian Moravia (858–882): Papal Power and Political Reality

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Help Centre. Track My Order. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Sorry, the book that you are looking for is not available right now. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Industry Reviews "In her book, Maddalena Betti attempts to chart the fate of the Methodian mission in Great Moravia and the establishment of Sancta ecclesia Marabensis in Moravian territory in the second half of the ninth century.

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Papal Power and Political Reality Cover The Making of Christian Moravia ( ) Nicholas I (–): The First Contact 54 3. The Making of Christian Moravia (–): Papal Power and Political Reality. By Maddalena Betti. East Central and Eastern Europe in the.

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I Agree This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and if not signed in for advertising. Your use of the site and services is subject to these policies and terms. Some of our men and this was more merciful cut off the heads of their enemies; others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into flames.

Growing number of U.S. Christian leaders preach about politics at church on Sunday

Piles of heads, hands, and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick one's way over the bodies of men and horses. But these were small matters compared to what happened at the Temple of Solomon, a place where religious services are ordinarily chanted. What happened there? If I tell the truth, it will exceed your powers of belief. So let it suffice to say this much at least, that in the temple and portico of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and the bridle reins. Fasoli ; Wallace-Hadrill , Villey , 30; Rousset , , ff. Holy war in the Christian tradition had its authoritative base partly in the Old Testament—in the books of Deuteronomy, Numbers, Joshua, Judges, and Maccabees.

It found its model in the wars of Yahweh.

The Making of Christian Moravia (858-882)

All were seen as the enemies of mankind, and so were excluded from all legal protection. As an anomaly in the perfect political and juridical system of the empire, they had to be eliminated. This approach to the outcasts of humanity was to become a model for Christian hostility toward pagans, infidels, rebels, and heretics. XVIII,10 p. It is said that in that building alone nearly ten thousand Muslims were slaughtered. The Jews were burnt together with the synagogue in which they took refuge. Morris , chap. As an extraordinary legal procedure, war ought to be fought within the limits of law.

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The doctrine of just war thus sought to regulate warfare and restrain violence. Ever since its adoption by the Church fathers, the doctrine of just war had a decisive impact on Christian views of war. Its authoritative Christian version was worked out by Augustine, who added a few novelties to the classical doctrine. Besides the exemption of monks and priests from military activity, perhaps most important among these was the idea of the right disposition of the heart for those exercising violence.

The Christian attitude toward war was characterized by tension between just war and holy war. The code of just war tended to break down in the fervor of holy war. Whereas just war set limits on warfare and barred clerics from bearing arms, participating in wars, and shedding blood, taking up arms for the realization of God's purpose tended to override all obstacles and do away with all limitations.

Looking at his ideas of war from the point of view of later medieval authors is also questionable; but since I am primarily concerned with this later use, I have adopted here this methodologically problematic approach.

Papal Power and Political Reality

On Augustine's views on war and coercion, see especially Brown ; Markus Inflicting corporeal punishment might be dictated by charity. Until the eleventh century, however, the Church's normative attitude toward warfare and the military profession was dominated by the just war doctrine, even though Popes and bishops may have been involved in wars justified as the Lord's war.

Proponents of holy war had to pay homage to the just war tradition and represent holy war as a just war in order to legitimize it in the eyes of their contemporaries. Gilchrist is prominent among the scholars who have criticized Erdmann for overemphasizing the role of the eleventh-century reform Papacy in the Church's change of attitude toward war, while playing down the ecclesiastical militarism in the two centuries that preceded. Vismara , 62— Watt Johnson , however, has provided a systematic comparison of the idea of holy war in Christian and Islamic culture.

Partner , chap. Archer and Ch. Saunders, Aspects of the Crusades Christchurch, N. For a refutation of a subset of the thesis that the Crusades were a response to jihad—that the Christian military orders took as their model the Islamic institution of ribat a fortified convent, built in a border area, whose inmates combined a religious way of life with fighting against the enemies of Islam —see Forey , 8 f. See also Johnson , especially 42 ff.

Categorically speaking, the crusades were not a just war. On the other hand, as a holy war the crusade evades the formal restrictions of the just war doctrine even when it refers to them.

The crusade is a war in which the use of arms is not merely justifiable and condoned but is positively pleasing to and sanctioned by God. Where just war is morally acceptable, the crusade is blessed. Fighting merits God's special favor and is regarded as spiritually beneficial to those engaged in it. The doctrine of just war might have sought to tame this righteousness in arms, but the capacity of justice to hold righteousness in check should not be overestimated.

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This logical step was taken a century after the First Crusade, when Alanus Anglicus formulated the legal principle that the right to make war pertained only to the Christians. With the twelfth century, 'Saracen' came to be used more frequently in this manner. In this respect, the crusade was an inversion, or perversion, of the fundamental Augustinian perspective. In the following years, Guy and other bishops organized new councils, and the movement expanded. The written sources are mostly Frankish annals and the various materials arising out of the jurisdictional disputes provoked by the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius the better choice for celebration on February 14th! Fighting and killing began to be regarded as not only permissible but also meritorious.

Donc ici aussi: defendere, repetere res, ulcisci. If it is holy, it is holy no matter what prince, parliament, or people may say to the contrary. Once emancipated from use by the crusaders, Carolingian history becomes a more nuanced reality. Haskins , See Borgolte , chap. Carolingian wars against the pagans were represented in images associating them with the holy wars of the Hebrews. Charlemagne was a king who was just and clement but who also knew how to lead his army to victory—just like the kings of Israel.

For the extension of this concept to the defensio christianitatis, see Rupp , 38 ff.

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More sources are cited in Morrison , 45f. Carlyle and Carlyle — 36, 1: ff. Moreover, defense of the Church was a dynamic notion. It included both protection and propagation of the faith. The notion that the Frankish kings, defending and exalting the faith, were aided by God and acted as instruments of His justice predated Charlemagne.