Psychology 1 Nature 1 Chemistry 1 Architecture 1. Gulrajani 2. Page 2 of 4 Showing 49 - 96 of Previous Next. Specialist Yarn and Fabric Smart Clothes and Wearable Innovative Jacquard Textile Textiles in Automotive Handbook of Textile Fibre Hearle Editor Handbook of Fibre Rope Hearle Author Advances in Fire Retardant Woodhead Publishing in Textiles Series A.
Richard Horrocks Editor D. Price Editor Pattern Cutting for Clothing Advances in Military Textiles Silk, Mohair, Cashmere and Rouette Author The results were considered to be encouraging for certain types of performs. Multiaxis 3D weaving was prototyped to test the feasibility of the process and the capability of producing various unit cell-based performs . The basic processing parameters were identified related to the perform unit cell.
The basic technical hurdle was the beat-up, in which open reed was required for bias orientation in the process, which must be differentiated during the packing action for the width ratio. It was concluded that the process and product of this investigation was considered to be feasible. Traditionally, composites are manufactured by manual layup of two-dimensional 2D laminates until the correct thickness and shape is achieved, a costly and labour-intensive method .
To overcome these problems, the textile industry has sought to produce near-net-shape reinforced three dimensional 3D fibre architectures, known as textile performs, which are produced directly into the shape of the final component, eliminating the hand lay-up process.
Purchase Structure and Mechanics of Textile Fibre Assemblies - 1st Edition. View all volumes in this series: Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles. Purchase Structure and Mechanics of Textile Fibre Assemblies - 2nd Edition. Imprint: Woodhead Publishing . 9. Mechanical Properties of Medical Textiles.
Textile performs can be manufactured by weaving, knitting, braiding, stitching or non-woven methods . Mechanical properties can be tailored by orientating fibres in optimal directions to provide through-thethickness reinforcement, which improves inter laminar shear and prevents delaminating; a characteristic that traditional composites lack [37,38]. Textile performs can be injected with resin and subjected to heat and pressure for consolidation into a hard or soft flexible textile composite; alternatively, they can remain in their soft state for arrange of applications, i.
The resin contributes only a minor role in the load bearing capacity of the composite ; instead, it is the reinforcement materials that provide the strength and load bearing capacity. In a soft composite, the textile structure is the major component to the composite .
The production of 3D fabrics through fully automated textile machinery eliminates assembly operations, minimises waste and reduces cost Hu, Ionesietal factors that have led to increased interest in 3D textile performing [41,42]. A significant advantage to 3D performs is their ability to at exactly into a mould for resin infusion without the need to precisely manoeuvre the textile structure into the correct shape. This paper addresses current technologies that achieve such performs, and provides an understanding of how a combination of yarn arrangements interlocking and interloping could improve the mechanical and physical properties of a structure.
The experimental results of the tensile properties of knit structures with inlay yarns supports further investigations into reinforced contoured material forms. It has been shown that the use of textile processes for technical applications has been on the rise, and will continue to grow as it makes improvements to products compared to its metal and plastic counterparts.
An overview of existing textile technologies, which can produce 3D structures for composite applications has been provided. The benefits and limitations of various construction techniques including their mechanical performance have been highlighted. The need to combine current concept stocreate alternative material forms that has unique mechanical properties such as high strength with good mould ability has been noted. This will allow for performs of almost any 3D shape to be produced instantaneously with reinforcement yarns.
It has been proven that the introduction of inlay yarns increases fibre content and improves tensile properties; therefore, further research in this area will enable such structures to compete with woven and braided counterparts for composite applications. It has been found that crimp reduces tensile properties, so minimising the crimp factor of the reinforcement yarns through knitted loops would be ideal.
This may cause difficulty during weft insertion, as the width of most knitted fabrics tend to contract when taken off the machine, with the straight weft inlay yarn maintaining its original length causing a high crimp factor. The weft in lay yarns would have to be pulled tight after fabric formation to restrict extension in the weft direction, and an additional process to secure these on the side would need to be undertaken. Knitting technology is a diverse and flexible manufacturing method, which is likely to see further growth and development, particularly as an option for light weights of tand hard composites.
At the present, utilizing dry textile reinforcement performs in combination with low-cost consolidation processes such as resin transfer moulding RTM or vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding VARTM is considered as the most effective manufacturing pathways to achieve low-cost FRPC . In most cases, 2D woven fabrics made of high performance fibres with constant width are used that need to be cut into tailored shaped pieces before being stacked and joined into a matched performing tool with specific shape to meet mechanical and structural requirements.
As cut fabric edges are unstable, oversize patterning, skilled hand labor as well as trimming after consolidating are required which consequently make the fabrication of performs and composites expensive. To achieve a more cost-effective system for FRPC manufacturing, optimization advances in textile perform fabrication are needed.
A promising approach is the implementation of 2D net shape woven fabrics.
In contrast to a conventional woven fabric whose width remains constant along the entire length, a 2D net shape fabric is produced with variable width conforming to a tailored contour so that the desired fabric shape for performing can be achieved solely out of weaving process. Cutting is therefore simplified or even eliminated.
Process count, material scrap, tooling and workforce will be reduced which helps to cut down the expensive perform manufacturing cost. Furthermore, a higher grade of automation in perform fabrication can be achieved.
Recently, innovative structure concepts of 2D woven fabrics with tailored contour have been developed and patented by ITM . The described structures show a high potential to be applied in FRPC, however, technical means for their realization is currently missing. With the aim to establish a more cost-effective system for the manufacture of dry textile performs for FRPC, advanced 2D net shape weaving technology has been developed. A wide variety of 2D net shape woven contours can be achieved with high geometric precision.
Resulting structures show advanced characteristics that can bring both performance and cost advantages to composites fabrication such as globally uniform structural parameters and sufficient edge stability along desired contour. The development and achievements of advanced 2D net shape weaving have been discussed. Advanced 2D net shape weaving has been developed on the basis of ORW technology. Using available ORW machine, a standard woven fabric with integrated leno selvedge in tailored contour can be fabricated. Leno selvedge made of fine multifilament yarn marks the desired fabric shape and keeps the cut fabric pieces from fraying .
A variety of leno weave patterns are developed and evaluated in terms of cut edge stability and contour design flexibility. Cut edges with integrated leno selvedge show significant stability improvement compared to that without selvedge. The successful development of 2D net shape weaving using ORW technology helps to establish a more cost effective system for the manufacture of dry textile performs for FRPC. In this way material scrap, cycle time and perform manufacturing cost can be reduced significantly. Furthermore, higher grade of automation in perform fabrication can be achieved.
Around , very elaborate and exhaustive work resulted into development of a rapier weaving machine to produce woven seamless 3D hollow shells and some other shapes, without the need of eliminating and cutting warp threads . Mechanisms of loom becomes complex. In the tubular braided reinforcement, each fibre follows a helical path around the principal axis of the braid.
Ayranci and Carey  have reviewed the use of 2-D braided composites for stiffness critical applications. The modelling of the mechanical properties of textile braids has been considered by a number of authors [e. Bellara  states that "yarn in a knitted fabric follows a meandering path forming symmetric loops". This produces a fabric with more elasticity more easily stretched than woven counterparts. The fabric is considered to consist of courses the horizontal row of loops and wales the vertical lines. In warp knitting each stitch within a row has a separate thread, while in weft knitting there is one yarn per row.
Warp knitting is harder to unravel, while weft knitting produces more elastic fabrics. Raz  considers warp knitting to be by far the most versatile fabric production system in textiles. Warp knitted fabrics can be produced flat, tubular or three-dimensional, to be elastic or stable, and with an open or closed structure. Fabric width can be over 6 m wide without seams or a multiple of this width if it is a net construction. Warp knitting machines are divided in two categories: tricot machines and Raschel machines.
Raschel machines are normally used for the production of technical textiles. Stitch-bonding machines are regarded as a special form of warp knitting machines, especially suited for the manufacture of technical textiles, non-wovens and composites. The principle of weft insertion in warp knitting involves the insertion of the reinforcement fibres in parallel across the whole width of machine.
According to Raz , the advantages of weft insertion systems are:.
Stitched fabrics use a lightweight fibre as a loop left-hand figure below sewn or knitted around the reinforcement tow to create the fabric photograph of a real reinforcement at centre figure below.