Existing pat terns of inequality, including those related to gender, are reproduced within schools through formal and informal processes. Knowledge of how the educational system contributes to the status of women requires a look at the institution itself and the processes that occur within schools. Research following Title IX documented a wide gender gap in course taking during high school that led to different educational and occupational paths for men and women.
For example, the American Association of University Women revealed in a report titled Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America that girls took fewer advanced math and science courses during high school, and these course taking patterns left them unprepared to pursue these fields in higher education. This contrasts with the primary school years, where girls receive better grades in math and are often over represented in high ability math courses, while boys are over represented in low ability courses.
Additionally, average math test scores for boys and girls are similar, although there is more variation among boys, leaving them with the highest, but also with the lowest, scores. Recent research suggests that the gaps in high school course taking are closing, and girls and boys now take similar numbers of math and science courses.
This may be the result of increased educational requirements and fewer choices in course enrollment, as girls continue to score lower on standardized tests and express less interest in these subjects. In addition, girls are now taking advanced courses such as calculus at comparable rates to boys, with the exception of physics. Furthermore, technology and computer courses remain highly gendered: though both boys and girls take computer courses, boys are more likely to take high skills classes, such as those that focus on computer programming, while girls are over represented in courses featuring word processing and data entry, skills associated with secretarial work AAUW Conversely, girls are more highly concentrated in the language arts, including literature, composition, and foreign language courses, and they tend to score higher than boys on verbal skills on standardized tests.
This gender gap in favor of girls does not appear to be closing, but it is given relatively little attention in discussions of gender and education. These high school course taking patterns foreshadow gender differences in higher education, where a high degree of sex segregation remains in terms of degrees and specializations.
In the United States, women are concentrated in education, English, nursing, and some social sciences, and they are less likely than men to pursue degrees in science, math, engineering, and technology. Sex typing in education appears to be a worldwide phenomenon, though it varies somewhat in degree and scope between countries.
In countries where educational access is limited and reserved for members of the elite, women are often as likely as men to have access to all parts of the curriculum Bradley ; Hanson However, in countries with more extensive educational systems, women have lower rates of participation in science and technology Hanson , fields greatly valued because of their link to development and modernity. Some have used a rational choice approach in explaining the persistence of educational segregation, particularly that of higher education.
Olive was working at the time on the final stages on her book Faces of Feminism , a comparative study of feminism in Britain and the USA from the early nineteenth century to the late 's. She wrote to me saying how she was exhausted with all the complications of seeing the manuscript through the press, especially proof reading and indexing, but had thoroughly enjoyed the writing of the book. And she was right. The following year, when financial cuts were imposed in higher education, Olive took early retirement. Retirement brought Olive the freedom to research and write on the subject close to her heart, the history of feminism.
Always very competent at synthesising material, she published The Biographical Dictionary of British Feminists , in two volumes and , which quickly became important reference texts.
The latter, published in , was to be her last book. It was very revealing. She wrote of her working-class background which was entirely lacking in those aspects of cultural capital considered necessary for academic success.
She had left school at 16 and worked as a clerk before marrying in Joe Banks, a young working-class man. Both Olive and Joe were able and ambitious, and through hard work and commitment entered the London School of Economics to read Sociology. Laurence K.
Shook - - British Journal of Educational Studies 20 3 Patricia Hannam - - Network Continuum. Bert Case Diltz - - Clarke, Irwin. Added to PP index Total views 10 , of 2,, Recent downloads 6 months 8 , of 2,, How can I increase my downloads? Sign in to use this feature. This article has no associated abstract. No keywords specified fix it. Philosophy of Education in Philosophy of Social Science categorize this paper. Applied ethics.
We use the quintile indicators based on the continuous SES variable we construct them. Bray, M. Subsequent rollout of social and emotional learning in district schools some of which were also Alliance schools produced gains in the share of students deemed proficient on the State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness STAAR, the next-generation state assessments in the years following that rollout, with students in the first set of schools with social and emotional learning programs scoring higher on state math and reading exams than those in later school cohorts. According to the report, gifted youth are more likely than average to experience academic failure and to develop social and emotional problems. Key Terms school choice : School choice is a term used to describe a wide array of programs aimed at giving families the opportunity to choose the school their children will attend. In part, the disparities in dropout rates may be a symptom of disparities in access to high quality education.
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