At the moment, three modules have been developed. The following papers are available thanks to Apex Optimisation.
Can I reach the threshold combining domestic and international items from Amazon Global Store in the same order? Polymerization and specialty chemical reactors with a heat release from an exothermic reaction that can exceed the cooling rate can develop a runaway response for an increase in temperature. In general, the manual mode should never be taken away from the operator because there are too many unforeseen possibilities and the operator is the last defense for safety and stability. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Learn More - opens in a new window or tab Any international shipping is paid in part to Pitney Bowes Inc.
Thanks to Apex Optimisation. The benefits of appropriate APC upgrades are examined with the key elements of a variety of case studies highlighted. The key elements in an APC lifecycle management program are proposed. A plant-wide fuel system application was commissioned in August and has delivered significant financial and operational benefits.
This technology uses a dynamic process model coupled with an embedded optimiser to control multiple input — multiple output systems. Seven MPC applications were commissioned on the Fractionation Unit in early with an immediate improvement in process stability and profitability.
With gradual change in the process conditions due to throughput increases, the performance of the MPC had deteriorated. In addition, with the prospect of LPG production losses being suffered due to Fractionation Unit capacity constraints, a review of the MPC design with a capacity maximisation focus in mind was appropriate. Condensate Stabiliser MPC Revamp - Most MPC technologies use dynamic process models coupled with embedded optimisers to control multiple input — multiple output systems.
The challenge, however, is often to determine the causes of the model mismatch. The Stabiliser MPC applications at the Karratha Gas Plant suffered similar performance degradation problems and the performance of the applications has gradually degraded over the last few years to the point where the service factor of the applications had dropped significantly. This was particularly evident during the summer months when the applications were not maximising feed rates.
One of the initial objectives was to maximise plant throughput capacity and this was pursued via three primary mechanisms: 1 Minimising DP across the CO2 removal trains; 2 Minimising the LRP inlet pressure in order to facilitate a plant inlet pressure reduction. This provides immediate production improvement from all field compressors and provides an improved basis for reconfiguration of the reciprocating compressors to deliver more flow at constant power and reduced field to plant inlet DP.
This helps eliminate spikes of high Moomba inlet pressure which would otherwise result in field compressor high discharge pressure trips. Precipitation Tanks — Multivariable Predictive Control Magic - This paper discusses a project to minimise the potential for overflow incidents at an Aluminium refinery. Advanced Process Control - lots of papers thanks to ControlGlobal.
Performance Monitoring of an Offshore Gas Compressor - Lauren Neal - Offshore equipment is monitored to prevent any unnecessary downtime but unfortunately for some, such as compressors, there is a lack of effective monitoring. This is critical because, along with the gas turbine, it is the highest cost offshore item in terms of capital and operational expenditure but is the least technically and operationally understood. Monitoring an important item of equipment such as a compressor is essential as it can be difficult to obtain replacement parts or units if a failure was to occur.
Adopting a preventative maintenance strategy with regard to compressor monitoring can prevent downtime costs from arising before failures occur or shutdown is mandatory. A common cause of compressor downtime is a fault with the bearings. This initiated an investigation to analyse the bearings of an offshore gas compressor, using statistical modelling techniques, with the view of predicting failures and therefore reducing unplanned downtime - from Matrikon Addressing the Myths of Model Predictive Control MPC - Don Morrison - Not that long ago it was suggested in an industry article that perhaps the time was right to begin considering viable alternatives to PID control.
Specifically it was advocated that the advances of model predictive control MPC have led to improved benefits that make it an answer to the inherent weaknesses of PID. In reality, PID control will always have a role in the process industries, and suggesting that it should be completely swept aside is not realistic. Manufacturers have taken notice, and many more are implementing MPC into their plants and reaping benefits - from Honeywell Process Solutions and Automation.
From our valued sponsor Moore Industries-Pacific, Inc. A well functioning alarm system can help a process run closer to its ideal operating point — leading to higher yields, reduced production costs, increased throughput, and higher quality, all of which add up to higher profi ts. Poor alarm management, on the other hand, is one of the leading causes of unplanned downtime and has been a major contributor to some of the worst industrial safety accidents on record. At Texas City key level alarms failed to notify the operator of the unsafe and abnormal conditions that existed within the tower and blowdown drum.
The resulting explosion and fire killed 15 people and injured more. At the Bayer facility Institute, WV improper procedures, worker fatigue, and lack of operator training on a new control system caused the residue treater to be overcharged with Methomyl - leading to an explosion and chemical release. Accidents like these demonstrate what can happen when an alarm system and operator response fail as a layer of protection in a hazardous process.
They also provided the motivation for the new ISA It offers guidance on how alarm management can be used to help a plant operate more safely. Sands and Donald G. Developing good alarm management practices is not a discrete activity, but more of a continuous process i. This paper will describe the new ISA This standard provides a framework and methodology for the successful design, implementation, operation and management of alarm systems and will allow end-users to address one of the fundamental conclusions of Bransby and Jenkinson that "Poor performance costs money in lost production and plant damage and weakens a very important line of defense against hazards to people.
This paper will provide an overview of the new standard and the key activities that are contained in each step of the lifecycle. Get a life cycle! Dunn - Alarms and operator response are one of the first layers of defense in preventing a plant upset from escalating into an abnormal situation. The new ISA This paper will highlight where these lifecycles interact and overlap, as well as how to address them holistically.
Specific examples within ISA 18 will illustrate where the output of one lifecycle is used as input to the other, such as when alarms identified as a safeguards during a process hazards analysis PHA are used as an input to alarm identification and rationalization.
The paper will also provide recommendations on how to integrate the safety and alarm management lifecycles.
Every practicing instrument, process control and process engineer will want to have this practical and to-the-point pocket guide on good tuning. Good Tuning, A . Every practicing instrument, process control, and process engineer will want to have this practical and to the point pocket guide on good tuning. Good Tuning: A .
The following links are from www. However, the SIL determination of Safety Instrumented Functions, or trip functions as they are often called, is only the tip of an iceberg when we come to consider what is involved in reviewing or configuring a typical alarm system.
Timms - This paper details various methods of criticality assessment which have been successfully applied to set the appropriate priority, identify the critical alarms that need to be upgraded to trips and to rationalise those of no value. It will also cover the use of software tools which can significantly reduce the effort involved in this process. Dunn and Nicholas P.
Sands - If you work in a plant that processes oil, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, power, water, wastewater, or food, you probably have problems with alarms on the automation system. In fact, you probably have the same problems that most other users have. The bad news is that it turns out that the common problems of alarm management are very common indeed, and they contribute to safety incidents, off-quality production, and plant shutdowns. In this article seven of these problems are examined,, their impact, and their solutions. Using Alarm Suppression - Effective Alarm Systems Improve Operations - Charlie Fialkowki - One of the signs of an effective alarm system is that it presents alarms to the operator only when they are relevant and require their response attention.
This means the alarm system is able to track the state of the process in order to know when to present the alarm and when to suppress it. Transient plant conditions, use of different feedstocks, and unplanned process upsets make this a challenge for many process applications. It can be used, for example, to suppress alarms when equipment is out of service or in response to a compressor trip which would otherwise lead to an alarm flood. Overloading the operator with stale irrelevant alarms or alarm floods can lead to increased operator stress, missed alarms, operator error, production losses, or worse.
Operators on alert - Operator response, alarm standards, protection layers keys to safe plants - David Hatch and Todd Stauffer - As plants run closer to their performance limits with fewer operators and support staff, alarm management is becoming paramount to maintaining plant safety. The key to maximizing the safety protection the operator provides is creating an environment where they are able to detect, diagnose, and respond to alarms properly and on time.
The standard can also bring together the disciplines of alarm management and safety-system design, which must work more closely to prevent future accidents. Don't be Alarmed - Avoid unplanned downtime from alarm overload, use top techniques to improve alarm management - Gary Goble and Todd Stauffer - Alarm management is one of the most undervalued and underused assets of process automation.
An important factor lending itself to human errors is the cacophony of alarms, which preclude the operator's ability to respond quickly and correctly. The following really good papers by Ian Nimmo are available from mycontrolroom.
Find out how to rescue your plant from alarm overload utilizing guidelines on personnel responsibility and benchmarking system performance. This article presents four practical tips for starting an effective and sustainable alarm management program that conforms to the tenets of a relatively new process industry standard for alarm management published by ISA - from Emerson Process Management. Too often, alarm system effectiveness is unknowingly undermined by poorly configured alarms.
Static alarm settings cannot adapt to dynamic plant conditions, and many other nuisances result in alarm floods that overwhelm operators when they instead need concise direction. Alarm systems are the primary tool for identifying abnormal situations and helping plant personnel take timely, appropriate action to move their processes back to operational targets. For operators considering undertaking an alarm management program, taking the time to examine common alarming blunders is important to ensure steps are taken to avoid them - from InTech.
Share your thoughts and opinions, seek advice, read others' experiences. The more you know and share, the better industry will be able to manage and optimize alarms. In a control room scenario, if we can maximise the ability of the operator to make the correct decision when called upon, we can maximise human reliability with the aim of reducing the number of at-risk behaviours and ultimately the number of major incidents or fatalities - from www.
Proliferation of alarms is out of control, making it almost impossible for end users and operators to distinguish between critical impending abnormal events and nuisance alarms. Consequently operators are increasingly overloaded with more alarms than they can handle effectively and inundated with nuisance alarms. These factors increase the likelihood that they miss a critical alarm and make it more difficult to respond to a plant upset, raising the chance of an unplanned shutdown or an accident.
The ISA It provides a framework and methodology for the successful design, implementation, operation and management of alarm systems and presents techniques to help end-users address the most common alarm management issues. As such it is expected to be accepted as "Good Engineering Practice" by insurance companies and regulators alike.
One of the most important practices described in ISA Charlotta Johnsson, Lund University, Sweden. Describes practical use of the standard.
Lather up with Batch - Matthew Leys and Sean Cahill - Unilever knew the success of its personal care consumer goods brands rested on the quality performance of its health and beauty mixing plant and aerosols plant. Economic growth paired with sound environmental management were just part of the strategy. Yet a total process control system update would help guide them to down the road to success. Also included in this article is a second article - Return to flexible batch automation - The ISA88 standard is easy to comprehend, but gaining in-depth understanding is a long process that takes understanding process operation and software engineering.
Using the concepts behind process analytical technology PAT is one effective tool to achieve this success, especially when incorporating batch standards, such as ISA Cascade Control - The Basics - from learn control. Compressor Surging Under Control - Turbocompressors, either centrifugal or axial, are the heart of many industrial processes. Often, these compressors are critical to the operation of the plant, yet they are seldom installed with a spare unit. Surging represents a major threat to compressors and these processes.
Surge prevention is an important process control problem in these environments as surging can result in costly downtime and mechanical damage to the compressors. An effective anti-surge control system is critical for every turbocompressor. From Prabhat Yadav and Cheresources.
This paper recommends the best methodology and operating procedures for determining proper staffing levels based on job complexity, loop count, process disturbances, and graphics. Designing a control building - discusses major aspects to designing a new control building i. Mandated Human Error Controls in USA-discusses a new approach to safety breaking the traditional barriers of people, organizations and culture, and puts control engineer back in the driving seat for determining performance improvements, optimizing control algorithms, people, and the way they interface with technology.
Operator Consoles - Growing Old Together -discusses refurbishment projects and best methodologies and standards for making the changes such as Study of Management Systems, i. Putting a human face on the design of Control Rooms -discusses how technology has pushed Industrial processes to the limit, and why Companies should implement standards and best practices around factors such as human related incidents and Control Room Design.