Archeology - Defences of Levant in Bronze age

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Walled Up to Heaven. Studies in the Archaeology and History of the Levant 4. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, Chicago, IL The University of Chicago.

Archaeology of the Levant

Tell Abu al-Kharaz is a 12 ha tell in the central Jordan Valley. The stone compound was exposed for a length of 46 m not counting the western annex of additional 20 m and consists of 21 rooms, with walls still standing to a height of more than 2 m. Several hundred complete vessels and other objects point to the extensive contacts of a fairly rich society.

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Direct and indirect contacts with Phoenicia, the Aegean and Cyprus were ascertained. At the end of the season of excavation the eastern limit of the compound was reached.

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In and complementary excavations were carried out to the north and east of the compound and — for the first time — in central parts of the tell. Trenches in hitherto unexplored areas of the city in the centre and along the city wall attested remains dating mainly from the Late Bronze and the early and late Iron Ages. This period also witnessed the development of megalithic structures, which continued into the Bronze Age. The term Neo-Syria is used to designate the early Iron Age. The old Syrian period was dominated by the Eblaite first kingdom , Nagar and the Mariote second kingdom. The Akkadian Empire conquered large areas of the Levant and were followed by the Amorite kingdoms , ca.

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and defensive strategies in the Levant during the Middle Bronze Age (ca. Although archaeologists and ancient historians alike have. Studies in the Archaeology and History of the Levant - SAHL. Download " Walled Up to Heaven": The Evolution of Middle Bronze Age Fortification Strategies in.

Also following the Akkadians was the extension of Khirbet Kerak ware culture, showing affinities with the Caucasus , and possibly linked to the later appearance of the Hurrians. The Mitanni , for a time, menaced the Hittite kingdom, but were defeated by it around the middle of the 14th. The Semitic Hyksos used the new technologies to occupy Egypt, but were expelled, leaving the empire of the New Kingdom to develop in their wake.

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From until , much of the Levant was conquered by Egypt, which in the latter half of this period contested Syria with the Hittite Empire. Cities all around the eastern Mediterranean were sacked within a span of a few decades by assorted raiders.

Excavations at Tell Abu al-Kharaz, Jordan Valley

The Hittite empire was destroyed. Egypt repelled its attackers with only a major effort, and over the next century shrank to its territorial core, its central authority permanently weakened.

The destruction at the end of the Bronze Age left a number of tiny kingdoms and City-states behind. A few Hittite centres remained in northern Syria , along with some Phoenician ports in Canaan that escaped destruction and developed into great commercial powers. The Israelites emerged as a rural culture possibly from the displaced Canaanite refugees escaping the Bronze Age Collapse to Judea and Samaria alongside groups like the Shasu and the Habiru mainly in the Canaanite hill-country and the Eastern Galilee, quickly spreading through the land and forming an alliance in the struggle for the land against the Philistines to the West, Moab and Ammon to the East and Edom to the South.

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Their armies were among the first to employ cavalry, which took the place of chariots, and had a reputation for both prowess and brutality. At their height, the Assyrians dominated all of the Levant, Egypt, and Babylonia.


Gibson, Jerusalem in Original Photographs, — ; J. Apart from the usual charred cereals and pulses and the material traces of oil and wine processing, archaeobotanical remains of other plant foods can also be found. A trained staff to accompany the chief archaeologist in the field was first employed by Reisner during his work at Samaria in Nails, lips, and even ears may have been coloured from as far back as the Bronze Age; frescoes from Akrotiri show red and orange tinted body parts on many of the women depicted there, perhaps achieved with saffron or henna Day, b. Advance article alerts. Lapin ed.

The subsequent balance of power was short-lived, though. This vast kingdom was divided up into various satrapies and governed roughly according to the Assyrian model, but with a far lighter hand.


Around this time Zoroastrianism became the predominant religion in Persia. The campaigns of Xenophon in BC illustrated how very vulnerable Persia had become to armies organized along Greek lines. Alexander did not live long enough to consolidate his realm; after his death in BC the greater share of the east eventually went to the descendants of Seleucus I Nicator.

This period saw great innovations in mathematics, science, architecture, and the like, and Greeks founded cities throughout the east, some of which grew to be the world's first major metropolises. The Seleucids to 63 BC adopted a pro-western stance that alienated both the powerful eastern satraps and many Greeks who had migrated to the east. A Persian dynasty, the Sassanids , periodically clashed with Rome , and later with the Byzantine Empire.