An Introduction to the Literature of Equatorial Guinea: Between Colonialism and Dictatorship

Equatorial Guinean Literature in its National and Transnational Contexts
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Kalter focused on the dramatic demographic shift that occurred in the few months after the Carnation Revolution , when between five and eight hundred thousand people migrated out of the colonies to Portugal. Considering the initial difficulties and conflicts they faced, Kalter recounted the subsequent emergence of a narrative of successful integration, advocated by politicians, journalists and sociologists.

Equatorial Guinea

The 15 percent of the retornados without homes were provided in part with primitive facilities in remote districts, with some non-whites even housed in prison cells. These retornados were also 'racially' classified, despite the fact that this classification lacked any legal relevance. According to Kalter, this marked a shift from the rhetoric of racial inclusion to an exclusive official racism. Sensitive to differentials in wealth and skin-colour, Kalter emphasised the uneven nature of the integration of retornatos. Both cities were created as military posts in settlement areas of Fang or Berber people respectively, with their city centres inhabited for decades almost exclusively by Europeans.

The political centralisation of Morocco after independence marginalised the Riffians and reinforced their distinct group identity.

After Equatorial Guinean independence in , many Africans moved to Bata and contributed to its quick growth, most prominently members of the Fang, to which the first president and soon dictator Macias Nguema belonged. Both post -colonial cities therefore became springboards for the power of defining sub- national identity. MPF became concerned with propagating and indoctrinating such values to assimilated female elites, who then were supposed to educate more African women.

The ideals of MPF were enacted in many places and even staged in prominent competitions. Although these activities worked only as a proxy for the cause of imperial endurance, it created new social possibilities for metropolitan and African women. The dictatorships, Stucki concluded, intervened into the family and thereby blurred the limits between open violence and cultural assimilation.

When Spanish Sahara was redefined as a Spanish province in , SF was challenged to incorporate Muslim women into its representational canon.

As Spanish Sahara was a colony and its women were Muslim, these integrative efforts remained very limited. The workshop promoted productive discussion of several aspects of Portuguese and Spanish late colonialism. The debate carved out some distinct contours of Iberian late colonialism, notably its fundamentally authoritarian nature and widespread military activities.

Both colonial powers did not allow political participation, because it would have been against the logic of the whole system. She has also completed a Graduate Certificate in African Studies. Her dissertation focuses on representations of prisons and incarceration in literature and historical documents and cultural productions from the decolonization period in Cape Verde, Equatorial Guinea and Mozambique. This paper examines the literary and historical representations of prisons during the autonomy and the post-independence period in Equatorial Guinea. Incarceration was a ubiquitous practice in colonial Africa as a means to ensure a manual labor force and to repress anti-colonial intellectuals.

While the onset of the post-colonial period is widely understood as a rupture with colonialism, the perpetuation of colonial prison infrastructures and disciplinary tactics demonstrates striking colonial continuities in the post-colonial period.

Equatorial Guinea

As theorist Achille Mbembe notes in "Necropolitics" "the death camps [are] the central metaphor for sovereign and destructive violence as the ultimate sign of absolute power of the negative. Mbembe, A. His current research focuses on issues of diaspora, colonization, creolization and subjectivity in the French Caribbean and the New World broadly conceived.

For 44 days a mass general strike brought the French overseas territories of Guadeloupe and Martinique to a standstill. From one perspective, while almost 70 years have passed since the instantiation of the law of that made Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana overseas departments of France, this moment also inaugurated the economic and political disaster of neocolonialism that is departmentalization.

The protests centered on this cost of living, elevated to the point where it highlighted local patterns of economic exploitation and racial inequality. As we know, such issues have been of critical importance in the Caribbean in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. And indeed, not only have the Caribbean French Overseas Departments been no exception to this rule, they have to a large extent actually embodied it to a striking degree.

At the same time, the abiding presence in the Francophone Caribbean world of many such issues — and the extent to which they frame the double-edged sword of neo-colonial empire that French overseas departmentalization often represents — have remained invisible to a large proportion of the rest of the Caribbean even as their own experience replicates these patterns, flying under the radar of the linguistic and geopolitical barriers — themselves ineluctable and, perhaps, ineradicable traces of empire -- that continue to artificially divide and stratify the region as a whole.

If we consider that language, ethnicity and culture congregate as a latent metaphorical framework mediating the transformative expression of intersecting Caribbean pluralities, we will also recognize that the model for such a pluralist, historically-inflected vision of Caribbean epistemology was unequivocally inscribed by one of the French Caribbean's major contemporary literary artists and cultural theorists, Martinique's Edouard Glissant.

Increasingly, questions of ethnicity, immigration, integration, and citizenship are vital to political and cultural discourses in both metropole and DOM. If the instantiation of a new definitional praxis for the DOMs demands an alternative vision of postcolonial praxis, this form of resistance will be grounded in the practice of creolization that undergirds and defines these communities. The categories and characteristics of plurality, ambiguity and nonlinear development that are the heritage of the colonial encounter can and should lead to a form of decolonization that especially embodies cultural independence, as well as its economic political corollaries.

Roger is a Trinidadian writer and performer who has lived in London for 24 years. He has performed worldwide and is an experienced workshop leader and lecturer on poetry.

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Despite their undeniable importance for the comprehension of the realignment of the transnational relations of power in the postcolonial Portuguese-speaking world, these studies tend to concentrate on the role of Portugal, leaving aside the interesting part played by Brazil in this process. The state of Equatorial Guinea is the product of the patchy Spanish colonization in the Gulf of Guinea since the midth century and the success of the nationalist movement in obtaining a joint decolonization in There are also five shortwave radio stations. In particular, they explicitly identified the new leprosy settlement as an opportunity to construct an idealised microcosm of the Francoist colonial regime. Support Center Support Center. The purpose of the meeting was to improve human rights and strengthen rule of law following criticism by rights groups, the opposition, and the Spanish government of the sentencing of 68 opposition activists for between six and 20 years in jail on charges of plotting to overthrow the president. Fernando Po now Bioko is featured prominently in the science fiction work The Illuminatus!

He was chosen by Decibel as one of 50 writers who have influenced the black-British writing canon. His solo music album Illclectica was released in on Altered Vibes and was named by Mojo Magazine as number eight in the top ten electronic albums for that year. He is currently touring and recording with King Midas Sound, working on some new exciting collaborations and ihe also released his second solo album , which is a dub poetry album called Dis Side Ah Town on Jahtari records.

The poems and songs all focus on Brixton before during and after the riots.

Her research focuses on the contemporary literatures of the five Portuguese-speaking African Countries, inquiring the ways in which the nation and national identity have been represented in their 21st Century fiction. The similarities and continuations between the cultural, political and economic projects of Lusotropicalism and Lusophony have been the object of growing attention among those interested in the aftermath of Portuguese colonial and imperial projects.

Despite their undeniable importance for the comprehension of the realignment of the transnational relations of power in the postcolonial Portuguese-speaking world, these studies tend to concentrate on the role of Portugal, leaving aside the interesting part played by Brazil in this process.

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This study, therefore, is an attempt to address this absence by proposing to look at the Brazilian positioning in the international arena of the Portuguese-speaking world. Departing from the acknowledgement of the interconnection of the cultural with the political and the economic spheres of life in society, we aim at assessing the Brazil-Angola literary exchanges at the time of a Lusophony embroiled in coloniality. Simon instructs courses in the areas of Hispanic and Lusophone cultures and literatures, Portuguese language, and Spanish language.

His own original poetry, composed in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, elaborates on the themes of love, travel, and self-imposed barriers to interpersonal relationships and communication. A critical construct based on notions of socially-oriented versus a more intimately-oriented poetic may suffice to discuss individual poets within this complex artistic strata. Critics such as Arenas have discussed how, as an activist against colonialism and government abuses, his pre-independence artistic works outline utopian hopes and discourse, followed by the disillusionment of post-independence.

The notion of a national discourse, from this perspectives, seems to allow the post-national, deconstructive voice in his poetry to germinate. Her research interests focus on Spanish colonialism in both Africa and Latin America, and she has published on the politics and processes of decolonization and postcolonial legacies, Atlantic networks, archives, borders, and ruins. Among her latest publications are Ceiba II. From Cuba to Fernando Poo and Back. Medical interventions played a pivotal role in the European colonization of Africa. Morbidity and disease were a constant preoccupation for colonial medical officers and scientists, politicians, the military, settlers, and religious orders alike.

I will argue that Spanish biomedical technologies—that is, research and sciences applied to human health, diseases, and psychology—served as powerful instruments of empire in the former Spanish Territories on the Gulf of Guinea, as well as imperializing cultural forces in themselves, between when Spanish colonization of the territories began in earnest and when the territories obtained independence from Spain.

I will be concerned with asking how colonial biomedical knowledge—often in the shape of a repository of mortality, morbidity, disease, degeneration, and ruination—was produced and applied in this region, and simultaneously brought into circulation in metropolitan Spain. Biomedical discourses and practices put to work some of the inherently colonial elements about medicine.

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This is not an environment where the arts will flourish, but Equatorial Guineans are hardy, determined people and a number of writers have emerged, refusing to be silenced and cowed. In the s, countless artists and intellectuals were forced into exile and a number of poets reflected on their homeland from abroad.

In , Donato Ndongo returned to Equatorial Guinea to run the Spanish-Guinean Cultural Centre, a post he held until , when he was once again forced to flee the country.